Terminology

The Term DRO

Bad or Possibly Redeemable Label? Blogger: Andy Lattal, Ph.D. A procedure in which each target response postpones a scheduled reinforcer most often is described in both the basic and applied research and practice literature as a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule, or DRO. The term first was used by Reynolds (1961), although in a paper received two months before
Praying-Deer-Cookie-Reinforcers_header

Praying Deer

Blogger: Andy Lattal, Ph.D.   For the past six months I have had the pleasure of living in the beautiful city of Nara, Japan, during a sabbatical leave to conduct research at nearby Osaka Kyoiku University with my fine colleague Professor Hiroto Okouchi. Among the many beautiful sights of Nara is a 1300- acre park. And
Is Bigger Better

Are Bigger Reinforcers Better?

Blogger: Andy Lattal, Ph.D.   When it comes to reinforcement, it is difficult to say. We can measure how “good” a reinforcer is in different ways. One measure is preference, but there may be many reasons why I prefer something that do not necessarily translate directly into how well it will maintain my behavior. The example
When Punishment is a Reinforcer

When Punishment is a Reinforcer

Blogger: Andy Lattal, Ph.D. Punishment, by definition, reduces, weakens, or eliminates (depending on one’s theoretical bias) the responses on which it depends. But punishment also reinforces other behavior, notably that of the one administering the punishment. It does so because the behavior being punished is reduced or ceases altogether. And once the behavior of punishing is
Once upon a time, there were twins named Immedium and Procrastinium. As their names might suggest, the two approached tasks very differently.

Agency and Shaping

Shaping, or the differential reinforcement of successive approximations, is thought by many to be the most important tool in the behavior analyst’s toolbox.